Various Artists | Amazonian Crossroads: Carimbó, Batuque And Umbanda

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World: Afro-Brazilian World: Afro-Brazilian Moods: Spiritual
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Amazonian Crossroads: Carimbó, Batuque And Umbanda

by Various Artists

These recordings were made during actual dances and ceremonies in and around Belém do Pará, in northern Brazil. Much of music is related to the phenomenon of spirit-possession in the Batuque and Umbanda religions.
Genre: World: Afro-Brazilian
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Tracks

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1. Tororó - Carimbó Conjunto Tapajoara
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4:40 $0.99
2. Exú Cabana Mineira de Mãe Iêmanjá
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2:08 $0.99
3. Batuque Song: Caçador Na Beira do Caminho Batuque Cabana Mineira de Mãe Iêmanja
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2:40 album only
4. Caboclo Cobra Coral / Os Caboclos de Pena / Adoçu Batuque Cabana Mineira de Mãe Iêmanja
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4:03 $0.99
5. Umbanda Song For Ogum: Ogum Em Seu Cavalo Corre Santo António de Angola
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2:25 album only
6. Êle Atirou, Mas Ninguém Viu Santo António de Angola
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1:17 album only
7. Exú-Tranca-Rua Cabocla Yacira
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1:27 $0.99
8. João da Mata Cabocla Yacira
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3:56 $0.99
9. Ogum É Pai de Todo / Rei do Gongá Cabocla Yacira
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3:26 album only
10. Ogum Beira-Mar Cabocla Yacira
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4:48 $0.99
11. Ogum-Iê: Umbanda Festival For Ogum Niká Befará Cabocla Yacira
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7:37 $1.50
12. Okê-Arô: Umbanda Festival For Oxossi / Batuque Greeting Song For Rei Sebastião Cabocla Yacira
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5:12 $0.99
13. Batuque Song For Iêmanjá Batuque Abassá Afro-Brasileiro Noxi D'otá
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1:36 $0.99
14. Umbanda Iêmanjá Festival, Icoaraci Umbanda Singers
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9:28 $0.99
15. Exú (Reprise) Batuque Cabana Mineira de Mãe Iêmanjá
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2:08 $0.99
16. Despedida de São Benedito (Carimbó) Conjunto Tapajoara
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5:59 $0.99
17. Sambinha do Pará Conjunto Tapajoara
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2:10 $0.99
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ABOUT THIS ALBUM


Album Notes
These rare recordings document Afro-Brazilian music in and around Belém-do-Pará, a busy port city and capital of the northern Brazilian state of Pará, part of what is known as Legal Amazonia. The city was founded in 1616 by the Portuguese as the first European settlement on the Amazon River system, and has served as gateway to the vast hinterland known as Amazônia. The Amazonian territories were governed directly from Portugal until 1772, and Pará did not join a newly independent Brazil until 1823. This geographical and culture area still differs substantially from the rest of the country; when compared to other areas, such as the Northeastern coast, the African cultural impact in Pará has been relatively weak, and its popular religion, language, and even cooking are all strongly marked by the region’s indigenous heritage. Its Portuguese colonizers never established there the large-scale plantations or mining operations like those along the northeastern coast and in the southeast of Brazil that were worked by huge numbers of African slaves. Pará’s economy was instead based mostly on the extraction of forest products, which later included rubber. At first, Indian labor was used in these extractive enterprises, but Indian slavery was abolished in 1680, and African slaves were brought in as early as 1682. Blacks eventually merged with the rest of the population in a thoroughgoing racial mixing, so that today a common physical type in the Pará interior is the caboclo, or rural mestiço, of mixed Portuguese, Brazilian Indian and sometimes African descent. This same mixed heritage can also be found in their music, particularly the carimbó, the most characteristic dance of the region. The two carimbó tracks in this collection, both recorded in the Salgado, literally the salt marsh, a rural area about 50 miles to the northeast of Belém, include a festival friction drum of Central African or Angolan origin, whose African names are related to cuíca, the high-pitched friction drum of the Rio carnival. In Pará, the friction drum is low-pitched, as it is in Africa, and it is called the tambor- onça , or jaguar-drum, because of its growling sound. It is played as a bass line to the drums that gave the dance its name; the word carimbó is derived from curimbó, which in the Brazil Indian language Tupi-Guarani means a hollowed-out log that produces sound. It may be hard to believe, but in its urbanized form, which also received Hispanic Caribbean influences, the carimbó was one of the main ingredients of the lambada dance craze of the 1980s.
The rest of the recordings, except for the final rural samba, were made in Belém, now a metropolitan area with a population, as of 2012, of over 2,000,000. Most of this music was recorded during live ceremonies involving spirit-possession in two religions, Batuque and Umbanda, brought into Belém by successive waves of migration and increased contact with the rest of the country. Batuque was brought in from the neighboring state of Maranhão, which, like Haiti, had received large numbers of slaves from Dahomey in West Africa. Maranhão’s capital city of São Luis was like an island of African culture in the region, which then spread to Belém. But no African religion could survive there without incorporating elements of Brazilian Indian origin, and this would explain why on track 4, spirits traceable to forest shamanism appear alongside Adoçu, a Dahomean fodun, or spirit, of royal lineage. Umbanda has been called Brazil’s truly “national” religion, and its spread to Belém was assisted by the opening of the Belém-Brasília highway in the 1960s. Umbanda has acted like a "front of national penetration," to use a local phrase that reflects the region's historic isolation and lack of integration with the rest of the country. The most spectacular track in this collection Is Ogum-Iê, an Umbanda festival for an orixá, a spirit of Yoruba origin. The tremendous energy heard here is not only spiritual – it also reflects the joy of being integrated into the national sphere, and of attaining a national identity at the religious level.


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